## 2021 Vol. 45, No. 4

Display Method: |

2021, 45(4): 041001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abde2e

**Abstract:**

The global

2021, 45(4): 041002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdfbe

**Abstract:**

We investigate the exotic

2021, 45(4): 041003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe03c

**Abstract:**

In this study, we analyze the direct-detection constraints of light dark matter in the next-to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) with non-universal Higgs masses (NUHM); we specially focus on the correlation between higgsino asymmetry and spin-dependent (SD) cross section. We draw the following conclusions. (i) The SD cross section is proportional to the square of higgsino asymmetry in dark matter

*g*-2 constraint, but our scenario with light dark matter can still be alive under current constraints including the direct detection of dark matter in the spin-dependent channel. (iii) With a sizeable higgsino component in the light dark matter, the higgsino asymmetry and SD cross section can also be sizeable, but dark matter relic density is always small; thus, it can escape the direct detections. (iv) Light dark matter in the

*Z*-funnel annihilation channels with sufficient relic density can be covered by future LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) 7-ton in SD detections. (v) The spin-independent (SI) cross section is dominated by

2021, 45(4): 041004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe03d

**Abstract:**

Many experiments have confirmed spectral hardening at a few hundred GeV in the spectra of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei. Three different origins have been proposed: primary source acceleration, propagation, and the superposition of different kinds of sources. In this work, a broken power law has been employed to fit each of the spectra of cosmic ray nuclei from AMS-02 directly, for rigidities greater than 45 GeV. The fitting results of the break rigidity and the spectral index differences less than and greater than the break rigidity show complicated relationships among different nuclear species, which cannot be reproduced naturally by a simple primary source scenario or a propagation scenario. However, with a natural and simple assumption, the superposition of different kinds of sources could have the potential to explain the fitting results successfully. Spectra of CR nuclei from a single future experiment, such as DAMPE, will provide us the opportunity to do cross checks and reveal the properties of the different kinds of sources.

2021, 45(4): 041005. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe110

**Abstract:**

By globally analyzing nuclear Drell-Yan data including all incident energies, the nuclear effects of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) and initial-state parton energy loss are investigated. Based on the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) regime, the calculations are carried out by means of analytic parametrizations of quenching weights derived from the Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign

*A*, the same as the energy loss effect. By a global fit, the transport coefficient extracted is

^{2}/fm. In addition, to avoid diminishing the QCD NLO correction to the data form of Drell-Yan ratios, separate calculations of the Compton differential cross section ratios

2021, 45(4): 041006. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe197

**Abstract:**

In this work, the existence of Borromean states is discussed for bosonic and fermionic cases in both the relativistic and non-relativistic limits from the 3-momentum shell renormalization. With the linear bosonic model, we check the existence of Efimov-like states in the bosonic system. In both limits a geometric series of singularities is found in the 3-boson interaction vertex, while the energy ratio is reduced by around 70% in the relativistic limit because of the anti-particle contribution. Motivated by the quark-diquark model in heavy baryon studies, we have carefully examined the

*p*-wave quark-diquark interaction and found an isolated Borromean pole at finite energy scale. This may indicate a special baryonic state of light quarks in high energy quark matter. In other cases, trivial results are obtained as expected. In the relativistic limit, for both bosonic and fermionic cases, potential Borromean states are independent of the mass, which means the results would also be valid even in the zero-mass limit.

2021, 45(4): 043001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdf40

**Abstract:**

A search for the rare decay

^{−1}. No significant signal of the decay is observed and an upper limit of

2021, 45(4): 043101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abde2d

**Abstract:**

It is well-known that direct analytic continuation of the DGLAP evolution kernel (splitting functions) from space-like to time-like kinematics breaks down at three loops. We identify the origin of this breakdown as due to splitting functions not being analytic functions of external momenta. However, splitting functions can be constructed from the squares of (generalized) splitting amplitudes. We establish the rules of analytic continuation for splitting amplitudes, and use them to determine the analytic continuation of certain holomorphic and anti-holomorphic part of splitting functions and transverse-momentum dependent distributions. In this way we derive the time-like splitting functions at three loops without ambiguity. We also propose a reciprocity relation for singlet splitting functions, and provide non-trivial evidence that it holds in QCD at least through three loops.

2021, 45(4): 043102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abde2f

**Abstract:**

We calculate the masses of the

2021, 45(4): 043103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdeab

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we consider a set of new symmetries in the SM:

*diagonal reflection*symmetries

2021, 45(4): 043104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdea7

**Abstract:**

We investigate the dynamics of a strong first-order quark-hadron transition driven by cubic interactions via homogeneous bubble nucleation in the Friedberg-Lee model. The one-loop effective thermodynamic potential of the model and the critical bubble profiles have been calculated at different temperatures and chemical potentials. By taking the temperature and the chemical potential as variables, the evolutions of the surface tension, the typical radius of the critical bubble, and the shift in the coarse-grained free energy in the presence of a nucleation bubble are obtained, and the limit on the reliability of the thin-wall approximation is also addressed accordingly. Our results are compared to those obtained for a weak first-order quark-hadron phase transition; in particular, the spinodal decomposition is relevant.

2021, 45(4): 043105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdea9

**Abstract:**

Electro-production of several pentaquark states is investigated in this study. The eSTARlight package is adapted to study the electro-production of

*t*-channels, which are described in the pomeron exchange model developed in our studies. Some pseudo-rapidity and rapidity distributions of

2021, 45(4): 043106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdfbf

**Abstract:**

We investigate the thermodynamics and stability of the horizons in warped anti-de Sitter black holes of the new massive gravity under the scattering of a massive scalar field. Under scattering, conserved quantities can be transferred from the scalar field to the black hole, thereby changing the state of the black hole. We determine that the changes in the black hole are well coincident with the laws of thermodynamics. In particular, the Hawking temperature of the black hole cannot be zero in the process as per the third law of thermodynamics. Furthermore, the black hole cannot be overspun beyond the extremal condition under the scattering of any mode of the scalar field.

2021, 45(4): 043107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe03b

**Abstract:**

We studied the condensate mass of QCD vacuum through the duality approach via dilaton wall background in the presence of the parameter

2021, 45(4): 043108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe0bc

**Abstract:**

The discovery of

2021, 45(4): 043109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe0be

**Abstract:**

In this study, light-by-light (LBL) scattering with initial polarized Compton backscattered photons at the CLIC, induced by axion-like particles (ALPs), is investigated. The total cross sections are calculated assuming

*CP*-even coupling of the pseudoscalar ALP to photons. The 95% C.L. exclusion region for the ALP mass

*f*is presented. The results are compared with CLIC bounds previously obtained for the unpolarized case. It is shown that the bounds on

*f*for the polarized beams in the region

2021, 45(4): 043110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe0c0

**Abstract:**

We investigate the prospect of discovering the Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC)

*Z*boson and one light jet and the anomalous single top quark plus

*Z*boson production process

^{−1}, at the HE-LHC with

^{−1}, and at the FCC-hh with

^{−1}.

2021, 45(4): 043111. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe198

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we consider

2021, 45(4): 043112. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe1c7

**Abstract:**

A multiscalar and nonrenormalizable

2021, 45(4): 044001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdea8

**Abstract:**

With the help of the gas-filled recoil spectrometer SHANS and a digital data acquisition system, the fine structure of the

*p*3

*n*evaporation channel via the heavy-ion induced fusion evaporation reaction

2021, 45(4): 044002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdf3f

**Abstract:**

Dihadron azimuthal correlations containing a high transverse momentum (

*p*+

*p*and

*d*+Au collisions. The modification increases with the collision centrality, suggesting a path-length or energy density dependence to the jet-quenching effect. This paper reports STAR measurements of dihadron azimuthal correlations in mid-central (20%-60%) Au+Au collisions at

2021, 45(4): 044003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe0bd

**Abstract:**

In this study,

^{218}Ac and

^{221}Th nuclides were produced via the heavy-ion induced fusion evaporation reaction

^{40}Ar +

^{186}W. Their decay properties were studied with the help of the gas-filled recoil spectrometer SHANS and a digital data acquisition system. The cross section ratio between

^{222}Pa and

^{218}Ac was extracted experimentally, with measured value 0.69(9). Two new possible

*α*decay branches to

^{221}Th are suggested. The valence neutron configurations for the daughter

^{217}Ra are discussed in terms of the hindrance factors.

2021, 45(4): 044004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe196

**Abstract:**

The cross sections of the

^{59}Co(

*n*,

*x*) reaction in the average energy range of 15.2-37.2 MeV were measured using activation and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The neutrons were generated from the

^{9}Be(

*p*,

*n*) reaction with proton beam energies of 25-45 MeV at the MC-50 Cyclotron facility of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). Theoretical calculations of neutron–induced reactions on

^{59}Co were performed using the nuclear model code TALYS-1.9. The results for the

^{59}Co(

*n*,

*x*) reactions were compared with the theoretical values obtained using TALYS-1.9 and the literature data provided in EXFOR and the TENDL 2019 nuclear data library. The theoretical values obtained using TALYS-1.9 with adjusted parameters are comparable to the experimental data. The measured reaction cross sections of a few radionuclides are new, and the others are comparable to the literature data, and thus, they can strengthen the database. The present study on cross sections leads to useful insight into the mechanisms of

^{59}Co(

*n*,

*x*) reactions.

2021, 45(4): 044101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abde31

**Abstract:**

A nucleon-nucleus dynamics model was developed to investigate the proton-, neutron-, and deuteron-induced reactions at hundreds of MeV/nucleon. In this model, the trajectory of incident nucleon is described by classical mechanics, and the probability of reaction between the nucleon and nucleus is calculated by exponential damping. It is shown that the total reaction cross sections calculated by the model agree in general with the predictions by the CDCC and the experimental data. The model was applied to investigate the nucleon stripping in deuteron-induced reactions and its symmetry energy dependence.

2021, 45(4): 044102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdf41

**Abstract:**

We studied coupled dynamics of hydrodynamic fields and order parameter in the presence of nontrivial longitudinal flow using the chiral fluid dynamics model. We found that longitudinal expansion provides an effective relaxation for the order parameter, which equilibrates in an oscillatory fashion. Similar oscillations are also visible in hydrodynamic degrees of freedom through coupled dynamics. The oscillations are reduced when dissipation is present. We also found that the quark density, which initially peaked at the boundary of the boost invariant region, evolves toward forward rapidity with the peak velocity correlated with the velocity of longitudinal expansion. The peak broadens during this evolution. The corresponding chemical potential rises due to simultaneous decrease of density and temperature. We compared the cases with and without dissipation for the order parameter and also the standard hydrodynamics without order parameter. We found that the corresponding effects on temperature and chemical potential can be understood from the conservation laws and different speeds of equilibration of the order parameter in the three cases.

2021, 45(4): 044103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdf42

**Abstract:**

Nuclear

*r*-process path, the uncertainties for those with

*r*-process path, which indicates that the empirical formula is very suitable for predicting the

*r*-process simulations.

2021, 45(4): 044104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdf43

**Abstract:**

We investigate the chiral phase structure of quark matter with spheroidal momentum-space anisotropy specified by one anisotropy parameter

2021, 45(4): 044105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdfbc

**Abstract:**

The isovector giant dipole resonances (IVGDR) in proton-rich Ar and Ca isotopes have been systematically investigated using the resonant continuum Hartree-Fock+BCS (HF+BCS) and quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) methods. The Skyrme SLy5 and density-dependent contact pairing interactions are employed in the calculations. In addition to the giant dipole resonances at energy around 18 MeV, pygmy dipole resonances (PDR) are found to be located in the energy region below 12 MeV. The calculated energy-weighted moments of PDR in nuclei close to the proton drip-line exhaust about 4% of the TRK sum rule. The strengths decrease with increasing mass number in each isotopic chain. The transition densities of the PDR states show that motions of protons and neutrons are in phase in the interiors of nuclei, while the protons give the main contribution at the surface. By analyzing the QRPA amplitudes of proton and neutron 2-quasiparticle configurations for a given low-lying state, we find that only a few proton configurations give significant contributions. They contribute about 95% to the total QRPA amplitudes, which indicates that the collectivity of PDR states is not strong in proton-rich nuclei in the present study.

2021, 45(4): 044106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdfc0

**Abstract:**

A model for cold-fusion reactions related to the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei in collisions of heavy projectile-nuclei with a

^{208}Pb target nucleus is discussed. In the framework of this model, the production of the compound nucleus by two paths, the di-nuclear system path and the fusion path, are taken into account simultaneously. The formation of the compound nucleus in the framework of the di-nuclear system is related to the transfer of nucleons from the light nucleus to the heavy one. The fusion path is linked to the sequential evolution of the nuclear shape from the system of contacting nuclei to the compound nucleus. It is shown that the compound nucleus is mainly formed by the fusion path in cold-fusion reactions. The landscape of the potential energy related to the fusion path is discussed in detail. This landscape for very heavy nucleus-nucleus systems has an intermediate state, which is linked to the formation of both the compound nucleus and the quasi-fission fragments. The decay of the intermediate state is taken into account in the calculation of the compound nucleus production cross sections and the quasi-fission cross sections. The values of the cold-fusion cross sections obtained in the model agree well with the experimental data.

2021, 45(4): 044107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe03e

**Abstract:**

This investigation aims to find an appropriate dinuclear system for the formation of

2021, 45(4): 044108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe03f

**Abstract:**

The dependence of proton emission half-lives on the nuclear asymmetry parameter is investigated using the WKB method and two types of empirical formula. Using the single-folding formalism with asymmetry-dependent nuclear radius and surface diffuseness of nuclear matter, the nuclear potential and consequently the half-life are functions of the asymmetry factor. Despite small values of asymmetry in neutron-deficient proton emitters, noticeable changes in the half-lives are observed. The addition of an asymmetry parameter term to the two forms of empirical formulas leads to a reduction in the rms error for ground state and isomeric transitions. A noticeable reduction of about 43% is obtained for isomeric transitions in the second form of the empirical formula. Considering ground state transitions in two categories, odd-even and odd-odd emitters, and adopting deformation and asymmetry-dependent empirical formulas, the rms decreases remarkably. The lowest values of rms errors, viz. 0.1492, 0.2312, and 0.1999, are obtained for the aforementioned empirical formulas for ground state transitions of odd-even and odd-odd emitters and for all isomeric transitions, respectively.

2021, 45(4): 044109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe10e

**Abstract:**

Transport models cannot simultaneously explain very recent data on pion multiplicities and pion charged ratios from central collision of Sn+Sn at 0.27

*A*GeV. This stimulates further investigations on the pion dispersion relation, in-medium

2021, 45(4): 044110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe10f

**Abstract:**

In this study, based on the Gamow-like model, we systematically analyze two-proton (

2021, 45(4): 044111. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe112

**Abstract:**

An improved semi-empirical relationship for cluster radioactivity half-lives is proposed by introducing an accurate charge radius formula and an analytic expression of the preformation probability. Moreover, the cluster radioactivity half-lives for the daughter nuclei around

^{208}Pb or its neighbors and the

^{12}C radioactivity half-life of

^{114}Ba are calculated within the improved semi-empirical relationship. It is shown that the accuracy of the new relationship is improved significantly compared to its predecessor. In addition, the cluster radioactivity half-lives that are experimentally unavailable for the trans-lead and trans-tin nuclei are predicted by the new semi-empirical formula. These predictions might be useful for searching for the new cluster emitters of the two islands in future experiments.

2021, 45(4): 044112. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe199

**Abstract:**

Correlations of conserved charges, i.e., the baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness, are calculated at finite temperature and chemical potentials up to the fourth order. The calculations are done in a 2+1 flavor low energy effective theory, in which the quantum and thermal fluctuations are encoded through the evolution of flow equations within the functional renormalization group approach. Strangeness neutrality and a fixed ratio of the electric charge to the baryon number density are implemented throughout the computation. We find that higher-order correlations incorporate more sensitive critical dynamics than the quadratic ones. In addition, a non-monotonic dependence of the fourth-order correlations between the baryon number and strangeness, i.e.,

2021, 45(4): 045001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abde30

**Abstract:**

The current-mode-counting method is a new approach to observing transient processes, especially in transient nuclear fusion, based on the non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) model. In this paper, a new measurement process model of the pulsed radiation field produced by transient nuclear fusion is built based on the NHPP. A simulated measurement is performed using the model, and the current signal from the detector is obtained by simulation based on Poisson process thinning. The neutron time spectrum is reconstructed and is in good agreement with the theoretical value, with its maximum error of a characteristic parameter less than 2.3%. Verification experiments were carried out on a CPNG-6 device at the China Institute of Atomic Energy, with a detection system with a nanosecond response time. The experimental charge amplitude spectra are in good agreement with those obtained by the traditional counting mode, and the characteristic parameters of the time spectrum are in good agreement with the theoretical values. This shows that the current-mode-counting method is effective for the observation of transient nuclear fusion processes.

2021, 45(4): 045002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe195

**Abstract:**

Direct detection experiments tend to lose sensitivity in searches for sub-MeV light dark matter candidates due to the threshold of recoil energy. However, such light dark matter particles could be accelerated by energetic cosmic rays, such that they could be detected with existing detectors. We derive constraints on the scattering of a boosted light dark matter particle and electron from the XENON100/1T experiment. We illustrate that the energy dependence of the cross section plays a crucial role in improving both the detection sensitivity and also the complementarity of direct detection and other experiments.

2021, 45(4): 045101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdeaa

**Abstract:**

The LHAASO-WFCTA experiment, which aims to observe cosmic rays in the sub-EeV range using the fluorescence technique, uses a new generation of high-performance telescopes. To ensure that the experiment has excellent detection capability associated with the measurement of the energy spectrum, the primary composition of cosmic rays, and so on, an accurate geometrical reconstruction of air-shower events is fundamental. This paper describes the development and testing of geometrical reconstruction for stereo viewed events using the WFCTA (Wide Field of view Cherenkov/Fluorescence Telescope Array) detectors. Two approaches, which take full advantage of the WFCTA detectors, are investigated. One is the stereo-angular method, which uses the pointing of triggered SiPMs in the shower trajectory, and the other is the stereo-timing method, which uses the triggering time of the fired SiPMs. The results show that both methods have good geometrical resolution; the resolution of the stereo-timing method is slightly better than the stereo-angular method because the resolution of the latter is slightly limited by the shower track length.

2021, 45(4): 045102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abdfbd

**Abstract:**

This work suggests a new model for anisotropic compact stars with quintessence in

*T*is the scalar torsion and

*n*are real constants. The acquired field equations incorporating the anisotropic matter source along with the quintessence field, in

*T*for the observed stars

2021, 45(4): 045103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe0bf

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study three scalar fields, namely the quintessence, phantom, and tachyon fields, to explore the source of dark energy via the Gaussian processes method from the background and perturbation growth rate data. The corresponding reconstructions suggest that the dark energy should be dynamical. Moreover, the quintom field, which is a combination of the quintessence and phantom fields, is powerfully favored by the reconstruction. The mean values indicate that the potential

2021, 45(4): 045104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe111

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study the dynamics of k-essence in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). The study indicates that the loop quantum gravity (LQG) effect plays a key role only in the early epoch of the universe and is diluted in the later stages. The fixed points in LQC are basically consistent with those in standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. For most of the attractor solutions, the stability conditions in LQC are in agreement with those for the standard FRW universe. For some special fixed points, however, tighter constraints are imposed thanks to the LQG effect.

2021, 45(4): 045105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe19a

**Abstract:**

In four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity, we consider the thermodynamic and phase transitions of (charged) AdS black holes. For the negative GB coefficient

2021, 45(4): 045106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abe19b

**Abstract:**

In this work, we study the implications of Higgs precision measurements at future Higgs factories for the MSSM parameter space, focusing on the dominant stop sector contributions. We perform a multi-variable fit to both the signal strength for various Higgs decay channels at Higgs factories and the Higgs mass. The

*χ*

^{2}fit results show sensitivity to

*m*, tan

_{A}*β*, stop mass parameter

*m*

_{SUSY}, and the stop left-right mixing parameter Xt. We also study the impact of the Higgs mass prediction on the MSSM and compare the sensitivities of different Higgs factories.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

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