## 2021 Vol. 45, No. 2

Display Method: |

2021, 45(2): 021001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abccab

**Abstract:**

Nucleon properties and structure should be modified by short-range correlations (SRC) among nucleons. By analyzing SRC ratio data, we extract the mass of a nucleon in an SRC pair and the expected number of pn-SRC pairs in deuterium, under the assumption that the SRC nucleon mass is universal for different nuclei. The nucleon mass of a two-nucleon SRC pair is

2021, 45(2): 021002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce14

**Abstract:**

The Geiger-Nuttall (GN) law of

*α*decay is commonly explained in terms of the quantum tunneling phenomenon. In this study, we show that such an explanation is actually not enough regarding the

*α*particle clustering. Such a conclusion is drawn after exploring the involved coefficients of the GN law based on the conventional description of

*α*decay, namely the formation of an

*α*cluster and its subsequent penetration. The specific roles of the two former processes, in the GN law, manifest themselves via the systematical analysis of the calculated and experimental

*α*decay half-lives versus the decay energies across the

*α*-cluster preformation probability is then found to behave in a GN-like pattern. This previously ignored point is explicitly demonstrated as the product of an interplay between the mean-field and pairing effect, which in turn reveals the structural influence on the formation of the

*α*cluster in a simple and clear manner. In addition to providing an effective method to evaluate the amount of surface

*α*clustering in heavy nuclei, the present conjecture supports other theoretical treatments of the

*α*preformation probability.

2021, 45(2): 021003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcfaa

**Abstract:**

The

2021, 45(2): 021004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcfad

**Abstract:**

We discuss the proper definition for the chiral crossover at finite temperature, based on Goldstone's theorem. Different from the commonly used maximum change in chiral condensate, we propose defining the crossover temperature using the Mott transition of pseudo-Goldstone bosons, which, by definition, guarantees Goldstone's theorem. We analytically and numerically demonstrate this property in the frame of a Pauli-Villars regularized NJL model. In an external magnetic field, we find that the Mott transition temperature shows an inverse magnetic catalysis effect.

2021, 45(2): 022001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd8e

**Abstract:**

Hexaquarks constitute a natural extension of complex quark systems, just as tetra- and pentaquarks do. To this end, the current status of

2021, 45(2): 023001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcf1f

**Abstract:**

Precise determination of the

*Z*pole operation, the channel signal can achieve five-

*Z*decays, and the signal strength accuracies for

*Z*pole statistics of one trillion

*Z*decays, assuming the total

2021, 45(2): 023002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcfab

**Abstract:**

Using a dedicated data sample taken in 2018 on the

*J*/

*ψ*peak, we perform a detailed study of the trigger efficiencies of the BESIII detector. The efficiencies are determined from three representative physics processes, namely Bhabha scattering, dimuon production and generic hadronic events with charged particles. The combined efficiency of all active triggers approaches 100% in most cases, with uncertainties small enough not to affect most physics analyses.

2021, 45(2): 023003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd16d

**Abstract:**

A sensitivity study on the measurement of the CKM angle

*D-*meson reconstructed in the quasi flavour-specific modes

*CP*-eigenstate modes

^{-1}of

^{-1}by the second half of the 2030 decade. The accuracy is dependent on the strong parameters

2021, 45(2): 023004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd92a

**Abstract:**

The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) features a 20 kt multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator sphere as its main detector. Some of JUNO's features make it an excellent location for

2021, 45(2): 023101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abca2c

**Abstract:**

In this study, we obtain the universal function corresponding to the diffractive process and show that the cross section exhibits geometrical scaling. It is observed that diffractive theory according to the color dipole approach at small-

*x*is a convenient framework that reveals the color transparency and saturation phenomena. We also calculate the contribution of heavy quark production in the diffractive cross section at high energy that is determined by the small size dipole configuration. The ratio of the diffractive cross section to the total cross section in electron-proton collision is the other important quantity that is computed in this work.

2021, 45(2): 023102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcc58

**Abstract:**

The resonance state of the

*S*-5

*S*, 1

*P*-5

*P*, 1

*D*-4

*D*and 1

*F*-2

*F*are given, with possible spin-parity assignments for all the states. The magnetic moments have also been obtained for all four configurations. The

2021, 45(2): 023103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcc5b

**Abstract:**

We study the scattering of

2021, 45(2): 023104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abccad

**Abstract:**

QCD theory predicts the existence of glueballs, but so far all experimental endeavors have failed to identify any such states. To remedy this discrepancy between QCD, which has proven to be a successful theory for strong interactions, and the failure of experimental searches for glueballs, one is tempted to accept the promising interpretation that the glueballs mix with regular

*et al*., more than 20 years have elapsed and more accurate measurements have been done by several experimental collaborations, so it is time to revisit this interesting topic using new data. We suppose

2021, 45(2): 023105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd2c

**Abstract:**

Measuring the fermion Yukawa coupling constants is important for understanding the origin of the fermion masses and their relationship with spontaneously electroweak symmetry breaking. In contrast, some new physics (NP) models change the Lorentz structure of the Yukawa interactions between standard model (SM) fermions and the SM-like Higgs boson, even in their decoupling limit. Thus, the precise measurement of the fermion Yukawa interactions is a powerful tool of NP searching in the decoupling limit. In this work, we show the possibility of investigating the Lorentz structure of the bottom-quark Yukawa interaction with the 125 GeV SM-like Higgs boson for future

2021, 45(2): 023106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd2f

**Abstract:**

Neutrinos stand out among the elementary particles because of their unusually small masses. Various seesaw mechanisms attempt to explain this fact. In this work, applying insights from matrix theory, we are in a position to treat variants of seesaw mechanisms in a general manner. Specifically, using Weyl's inequalities, we discuss and rigorously prove under which conditions the seesaw framework leads to a mass spectrum with exactly three light neutrinos. We find an estimate of the mass of heavy neutrinos to be the mass obtained by neglecting light neutrinos, shifted at most by the maximal strength of the coupling to the light neutrino sector. We provide analytical conditions allowing one to prescribe that precisely two out of five neutrinos are heavy. For higher-dimensional cases the inverse eigenvalue methods are used. In particular, for the

*CP-*invariant scenarios we show that if the neutrino sector has a valid mass matrix after neglecting the light ones, i.e. if the respective mass submatrix is positive definite, then large masses are provided by matrices with large elements accumulated on the diagonal. Finally, the Davis-Kahan theorem is used to show how masses affect the rotation of light neutrino eigenvectors from the standard Euclidean basis. This general observation concerning neutrino mixing, together with results on the mass spectrum properties, opens directions for further neutrino physics studies using matrix analysis.

2021, 45(2): 023107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd30

**Abstract:**

We study the relation between the symmetry group of a Feynman diagram and its reduced diagrams. We then prove that the counterterms in the BPHZ renormalization scheme are consistent with adding counterterms to the interaction Hamiltonian in all cases, including that of Feynman diagrams with symmetry factors.

2021, 45(2): 023108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd8c

**Abstract:**

We consider the positivity bounds on dimension-8 four-electron operators and study two related phenomenological aspects at future lepton colliders. First, if positivity is violated, probing such violations will revolutionize our understanding of the fundamental pillars of quantum field theory and the

*S*-matrix theory. We observe that positivity violation at scales of 1-10 TeV can potentially be probed at future lepton colliders even if one assumes that dimension-6 operators are also present. Second, the positive nature of the dimension-8 parameter space often allows us to either directly infer the existence of UV-scale particles together with their quantum numbers or exclude them up to certain scales in a model-independent way. In particular, dimension-8 positivity plays an important role in the test of the Standard Model. If no deviations from the Standard Model are observed, it allows for simultaneous exclusion limits on all kinds of potential UV-complete models. Unlike the dimension-6 case, these limits apply regardless of the UV model setup and cannot be removed by possible cancellations among various UV contributions. This thus consists of a novel and universal test to confirm the Standard Model. We demonstrate with realistic examples how all the previously mentioned possibilities, including the test of positivity violation, can be achieved. Hence, we provide an important motivation for studying dimension-8 operators more comprehensively.

2021, 45(2): 023109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd8f

**Abstract:**

On a lattice with 2+1-flavor dynamical domain-wall fermions at the physical pion mass, we calculate the decay constants of

*SU*(3) flavor symmetry breaking.

2021, 45(2): 023110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd90

**Abstract:**

We study the potential of the LHCb 13 TeV single

*W*

^{±}and

*Z*boson pseudo-data for constraining the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton. As an example, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the LHCb 13 TeV data, collected with integrated luminosities of 5

*x*region. The double-differential cross section measurement of

*Z*boson

*p*

_{T}and rapidity can greatly reduce the uncertainty bands of

*u*and

*d*quarks in almost the whole

*x*range, as compared to various single observable measurements.

2021, 45(2): 023111. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce10

**Abstract:**

By applying the Error PDF Updating Method, we analyze the impact of the absolute and normalized single differential cross-sections for top-quark pair production data from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, at a center-of-mass energy of

2021, 45(2): 023112. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce11

**Abstract:**

Inclusive

2021, 45(2): 023113. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce4f

**Abstract:**

The next-to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) with non-universal Higgs masses, i.e., the semi-constrained NMSSM (scNMSSM), extends the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) by a singlet superfield and assumes universal conditions, except for the Higgs sector. It can not only maintain the simplicity and grace of the fully constrained MSSM and NMSSM and relieve the tension they have been facing since the discovery of the 125-GeV Higgs boson but also allow for an exotic phenomenon wherein the Higgs decay into a pair of light (

*CP*-odd scalars). This condition can be classified into three scenarios according to the identitiesof the SM-like Higgs and the light scalar: (i) the light scalar is

*CP*-odd, and the SM-like Higgs is

*CP*-odd, and the SM-like Higgs is

*CP*-even, and the SM-like Higgs is

2021, 45(2): 023114. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce50

**Abstract:**

We study self-conjugate dark matter (DM) particles interacting primarily with Standard Model (SM) leptons in an effective field theoretical framework. We consider SM gauge-invariant effective contact interactions between Majorana fermion, real scalar and real vector DM with leptons by evaluating the Wilson coefficients appropriate for interaction terms up to dimension 8, and obtain constraints on the parameters of the theory from the observed relic density, indirect detection observations and from the DM-electron scattering cross-sections in direct detection experiments. Low energy LEP data has been used to study sensitivity in the pair production of low mass (

2021, 45(2): 023115. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcf20

**Abstract:**

Various quantum theories of gravity predict the existence of a minimal measurable length. In this paper, we study effects of the minimal length on the motion of a particle in the Rindler space under a harmonic potential. This toy model captures key features of particle dynamics near a black hole horizon and allows us to make three observations. First, we find that chaotic behavior becomes stronger with increases in minimal length effects, leading predominantly to growth in the maximum Lyapunov characteristic exponents, while the KAM curves on Poincaré surfaces of a section tend to disintegrate into chaotic layers. Second, in the presence of the minimal length effects, it can take a finite amount of Rindler time for a particle to cross the Rindler horizon, which implies a shorter scrambling time of black holes. Finally, the model shows that some Lyapunov characteristic exponents can be greater than the surface gravity of the horizon, violating the recently conjectured universal upper bound. In short, our results reveal that quantum gravity effects may make black holes prone to more chaos and faster scrambling.

2021, 45(2): 023116. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcf22

**Abstract:**

In this work we calculate the mass spectrum of strangeonium up to the

2021, 45(2): 023117. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcfac

**Abstract:**

We propose a new dihedral angle observable for measuring the CP property of the interaction between the top quark and Higgs boson in

2021, 45(2): 023118. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcfae

**Abstract:**

We present a SUSY model with four Higgs doublets of the "private type," in which all fermion types (up, down, and charged leptons) obtain their masses from a different Higgs doublet

*h*), and identify viable regions of the parameter space. Subsequently, these constraints are used to evaluate the prospects for detecting the FCNC decay mode

2021, 45(2): 023119. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd01c

**Abstract:**

Using the light-cone QCD sum rules, we evaluate the magnetic moment of the

2021, 45(2): 023120. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd084

**Abstract:**

The strong coupling constants of hadronic multiplets are fundamental parameters which carry information about the strong interactions among participating particles. These parameters can help us construct the hadron-hadron strong potential and gain information about the structure of the involved hadrons. Motivated by the recent observation of the doubly charmed

*K*,

2021, 45(2): 023121. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd085

**Abstract:**

The thermodynamics and overcharging problem in RN-AdS black holes with a cloud of strings and quintessence are investigated by the absorption of scalar particles and fermions in extended phase space. The cosmological constant is treated as the pressure of the black hole. The parameters related to quintessence and the cloud of strings are treated as thermodynamic variables. We find that the first law of thermodynamics is satisfied and the second law of thermodynamics is indefinite. Furthermore, we find that near-extremal and extremal black holes cannot be overcharged.

2021, 45(2): 023122. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd087

**Abstract:**

The asymptotic symmetries in the Brans-Dicke theory are analyzed using Penrose's conformal completion method, which is independent of the coordinate system used. These symmetries, indeed, include supertranslations and Lorentz transformations for an asymptotically flat spacetime. With the Wald-Zoupas formalism, “conserved charges” and fluxes of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs algebra are computed. The scalar degree of freedom contributes only to the Lorentz boost charge, even though it plays a role in various fluxes. The flux-balance laws are further applied to constrain the displacement memory, spin memory, and center-of-mass memory effects.

2021, 45(2): 024001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abca1d

**Abstract:**

The thick-target yield of the

^{9}Be(

*d*,

*α*

_{0})

^{7}Li and

^{9}Be(

*d*,

*α*

_{1})

^{7}Li

^{*}reactions has been first directly measured over deuteron energies from 66 to 94 keV. The obtained

*S*(

*E*

_{i}) of

*α*

_{0}and

*α*

_{1}have similar trends calculated by the thin-target yield, consistent with Yan’s report within the errors. Furthermore, the parametric expression of

*S*(

*E*) was obtained to calculate the theoretical thick target yield, and it roughly agrees with the experimental thick target yield.

2021, 45(2): 024002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce13

**Abstract:**

Novel measurements of the neutron energy spectra of the

^{9}Be(

*d*,

*n*)

^{10}B reaction with a thick beryllium target are performed using a fast neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer for the neutron emission angles

^{9}Be(

*d*,

*n*)

^{10}B reaction are distributed relatively independently for the ground state and the first, second, and third excited states of

^{10}B. The branching ratios of the

^{9}Be(

*d*,

*n*)

^{10}B reaction for the different excited states of

^{10}B are obtained for the neutron emission angles

^{9}Be(

*d*,

*n*)

^{10}B reaction for the third excited state decreases with increase in the incident deuteron energy, and the branching ratios for the ground state and the second excited state increase with increase in the neutron emission angle.

2021, 45(2): 024003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce52

**Abstract:**

Heavy ion collisions near the Fermi energy produce a ‘freezout’ region where fragments appear and later decay, emitting mainly neutrons, protons, alpha particles, and gamma rays. These decay products carry information about the decaying nuclei. Fragmentation events may result in high yields of boson particles, especially alpha particles, and may carry important information about the nuclear Bose Einstein condensate (BEC). We study ‘in medium’ four

*α*correlations and link them to the ‘fission’ of

^{16}O in two

^{8}Be in the ground state or

^{12}C

^{*}(Hoyle state)+

*α*. Using novel techniques for the correlation functions, we confirm the resonance of

^{16}O at 15.2 MeV excitation energy, and the possibility of a lower resonance, close to 14.72 MeV. The latter resonance is the result of all

*α*particles having 92 keV relative kinetic energies.

2021, 45(2): 024101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abca1b

**Abstract:**

In the context of the double folding optical model, the strong refractive effect for elastic scattering of

^{11}Li +

^{12}C and

^{11}Li +

^{28}Si systems at incident energies of 29, 50, and 60 MeV/n is studied. Real folded potentials are generated based on a variety of nucleon-nucleon interactions with the suggested density distributions for the halo structure of

^{11}Li nuclei. The rearrangement term (RT) of the extended realistic density dependent CDM3Y6 effective interaction is considered. The imaginary potential was taken in the traditional standard Woods-Saxon form. Satisfactory results for the calculated potentials are obtained, with a slight effect of the RT in CDM3Y6 potential. Successful reproduction with a normalization factor close to one for the observed angular distributions of the elastic scattering differential cross section has been achieved using the derived potentials. The obtained reaction cross-section is studied as a guide by extrapolating our calculations and previous results.

2021, 45(2): 024102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abca2b

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we investigate the medium modifications of girth distributions for inclusive jets and

*p*+

*p*and Pb+Pb collisions at

*p*+

*p*. Thus, the nuclear modification factor of girth distributions for inclusive jets is larger than unity at small girth regions and smaller than unity at large girth regions. This behavior results from softer fragments inside a jet as well as the fraction alteration of gluon/quark initiated jets in heavy-ion collisions. We further predict the girth distributions for

2021, 45(2): 024103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcc59

**Abstract:**

We use the two lowest weight states to fit

*E*2 strengths connecting the

2021, 45(2): 024104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcc5a

**Abstract:**

It is universally acknowledged that the Generalized Liquid Drop Model (GLDM) has two advantages over other

*α*decay theoretical models: introduction of the quasimolecular shape mechanism and proximity energy. In the past few decades, the original proximity energy has been improved by numerous works. In the present work, the different improvements of proximity energy are examined when they are applied to the GLDM for enhancing the calculation accuracy and prediction ability of

*α*decay half-lives for known and unsynthesized superheavy nuclei. The calculations of

*α*half-lives have systematic improvements in reproducing experimental data after choosing a more suitable proximity energy for application to the GLDM. Encouraged by this, the

*α*decay half-lives of even-even superheavy nuclei with

*Z*=112-122 are predicted by the GLDM with a more suitable proximity energy. The predictions are consistent with calculations by the improved Royer formula and the universal decay law. In addition, the features of the predicted

*α*decay half-lives imply that the next double magic nucleus after

^{208}Pb is

^{298}Fl.

2021, 45(2): 024105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcc5c

**Abstract:**

A radial basis function network (RBFN) approach is adopted for the first time to optimize the calculation of

^{252-288}Rf,

^{272-310}Fl,

^{286-316}119, and

^{292-318}120, are predicted using the improved GLDM with the diffuseness correction and the decay energies from WS4 and FRDM as inputs. Therefore, we conclude that the diffuseness effect should be embodied in the proximity energy. Moreover, increased application of neural network methods in nuclear reaction studies is encouraged.

2021, 45(2): 024106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd8d

**Abstract:**

The ALICE Collaboration measured three- and four-pion Bose-Einstein correlations (BECs) for Pb-Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is speculated that the observed significant suppression of multi-pion BECs is owing to a considerable degree of coherent pion emission in these collisions. Here, we study multi-pion BEC functions for granular sources with coherent pion-emission droplets. We find that the intercepts of the multi-pion correlation functions at the relative momenta near zero are sensitive to the number of droplets in the granular source. They decrease with the droplet number. The three-pion correlation functions for evolving granular sources with momentum-dependent partially coherent pion-emission droplets basically agree with the experimental data for Pb-Pb collisions at

2021, 45(2): 024107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce12

**Abstract:**

The temperature dependence of the shell corrections to the energy

2021, 45(2): 024108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd01e

**Abstract:**

In the present work, a two-parameter empirical formula is proposed, based on the Geiger-Nuttall law, to study two-proton (

*et al*. [

*Phys. Lett. B*

**774**, 14 (2017)] using the effective liquid drop model (ELDM), Sreeja

*et al*. [

*Eur. Phys. J. A*

**55**, 33 (2019)] using a four-parameter empirical formula, and Cui

*et al*. [

*Phys. Rev. C*

**101**: 014301 (2020)] using a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). In addition, this two-parameter empirical formula is extended to predict the half-lives of 22 possible

2021, 45(2): 024109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd083

**Abstract:**

Exploiting the concept of the dinuclear system, the interaction potential energy of two fragments that are quite close to each other is analyzed. A semi-classical method is used to calculate fission fragment yields using a simplified two-dimensional scission-point model. By considering the tip-to-tip orientation at the scission point of the fission process, we investigate the mass, charge, and kinetic-energy distributions of the fission fragments, for excitation energies in the 0-20 MeV range. Our results show that the fission fragment distributions are reproduced quite well, including the recent experimental results for the isotone chain [D Ramos

*et al*.

*Phys. Rev.*C

**97**, 054612 (2018)]. Thus, the simplified model is useful for multi-parameter global measurements of fission products.

2021, 45(2): 024110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd086

**Abstract:**

The mean total kinetic energy as a function of fission fragments, the <TKE> distribution, is presented for neutron-induced fission of

2021, 45(2): 025001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abccae

**Abstract:**

China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) is ideal for studying solar, geo-, and supernova neutrinos. A precise measurement of the cosmic-ray background is essential in proceeding with R&D research for these MeV-scale neutrino experiments. Using a 1-ton prototype detector for the Jinping Neutrino Experiment (JNE), we detected 264 high-energy muon events from a 645.2-day dataset from the first phase of CJPL (CJPL-I), reconstructed their directions, and measured the cosmic-ray muon flux to be

2021, 45(2): 025002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd01b

**Abstract:**

A sub-array of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), KM2A is mainly designed to observe a large fraction of the northern sky to hunt for γ-ray sources at energies above 10 TeV. Even though the detector construction is still underway, half of the KM2A array has been operating stably since the end of 2019. In this paper, we present the KM2A data analysis pipeline and the first observation of the Crab Nebula, a standard candle in very high energy γ-ray astronomy. We detect γ-ray signals from the Crab Nebula in both energy ranges of 10

*N*/d

*E*= (1.13

*E*/20 TeV)

2021, 45(2): 025101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abca1c

**Abstract:**

In the present work, we used five different versions of the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model to compute astrophysical quantities related to the GW170817 event and the neutron star cooling process. Two of the models are based on the original bag potential structure and three versions consider a harmonic oscillator potential to confine quarks. The bag-like models also incorporate the pasta phase used to describe the inner crust of neutron stars. With a simple method studied in the present work, we show that the pasta phase does not play a significant role. Moreover, the QMC model that satisfies the GW170817 constraints with the lowest slope of the symmetry energy exhibits a cooling profile compatible with observational data.

2021, 45(2): 025102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abccac

**Abstract:**

Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes with lattices are essential for optical conductivity studies in the holographic approach. We investigate the instability of these black holes that can result in the holographic description of charge density waves. In the presence of homogeneous axion fields, we show that the instability of AdS-Reissner-Nordström (AdS-RN) black holes is always suppressed. However, in the presence of Q-lattices, we find that the unstable region becomes the smallest in the vicinity of the critical region for the metal/insulator phase transition. This novel phenomenon is reminiscent of the behavior of the holographic entanglement entropy during quantum phase transitions.

Strong cosmic censorship for a scalar field in an Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet-de Sitter black hole

2021, 45(2): 025103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abccaf

**Abstract:**

It has been shown that the Christodoulou version of the strong cosmic censorship (SCC) conjecture can be violated for a scalar field in a near-extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. In this paper, we investigate the effects of higher derivative corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action on the validity of SCC, by considering a neutral massless scalar perturbation in

2021, 45(2): 025104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd2d

**Abstract:**

We studied the instability of regularized 4D charged Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet de-Sitter black holes under charged scalar perturbations. The unstable modes satisfy the superradiant condition, but not all of the modes satisfying the superradiant condition are unstable. The instability occurs when the cosmological constant is small and the black hole charge is not too large. The Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant further destabilizes black holes when both the black hole charge and the cosmological constant are small and further stabilizes black holes when the black hole charge is large.

2021, 45(2): 025105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcd2e

**Abstract:**

We investigate the axion-like particle (ALP)-photon oscillation effect in the high-energy

2021, 45(2): 025106. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce51

**Abstract:**

We obtain an exact slowly rotating Einstein-bumblebee black hole solution by solving the corresponding

*a*. Thus far, no full rotating black hole solution has been published; hence, the Newman-Janis algorithm cannot be used to generate a rotating solution in the Einstein-bumblebee theory. This is similar to the Einstein-aether theory, wherein only some slowly rotating black hole solutions exist. To study the effects of this broken Lorentz symmetry, we consider the black hole greybody factor and find that, for angular index

2021, 45(2): 025107. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abce53

**Abstract:**

We probe the universality of acceleration scale

2021, 45(2): 025108. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcf21

**Abstract:**

A universal relation between the leading correction to the entropy and extremality was proposed in the work of Goon and Penco. In this paper, we extend this work to massive gravity and investigate thermodynamic extremality relations in a topologically higher-dimensional black hole. A rescaled cosmological constant is added to the action of the massive gravity as a perturbative correction. This correction modifies the extremality bound of the black hole and leads to shifts in the mass, entropy, etc. Regarding the cosmological constant as a variable related to pressure, we obtain the thermodynamic extremality relations between the mass and entropy, pressure, charge, and parameters

*c*by accurate calculations. Finally, these relations are verified by a triple product identity, which shows that the universal relation exists in black holes.

_{i}
2021, 45(2): 025109. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abcf23

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the Joule-Thomson expansion of Born-Infeld AdS black holes is studied in the extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is identified with the pressure. The Joule-Thomson coefficient, the inversion curves and the isenthalpic curves are discussed in detail using a 4-dimensional black hole. The critical point of a Born-Infeld black hole is depicted with varying parameter

*Q*. In

*Q*. We find that the missing negative slope is still conserved in Born-Infeld black holes. We also extend our discussion to arbitrary dimension higher than 4. The critical temperature and the minimum of inversion temperature are compared. The ratio is asymptotically

*Q*increases or

2021, 45(2): 025110. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd01a

**Abstract:**

In this study, we implemented the type II seesaw mechanism into the framework of the

2021, 45(2): 025111. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd01d

**Abstract:**

We study the linear instability of the charged massless scalar perturbation in regularized 4D charged Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black holes by exploring their quasinormal modes. We find that the linear instability is triggered by superradiance. The charged massless scalar perturbation becomes more unstable with increasing Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant or black hole charge. Decreasing the AdS radius, on the other hand, will make the charged massless scalar perturbation more stable. The stable region in parameter space (

*α*,

*Q*, Λ) is given. Moreover, we find that the charged massless scalar perturbation is more unstable for larger scalar charge. The modes of multipoles are more stable than that of the monopole.

2021, 45(2): 025112. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/abd088

**Abstract:**

In this study, we examine the laws of thermodynamics and the weak cosmic censorship conjecture in the normal and extended phase spaces of Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes by considering a charged particle absorption. In the normal phase space, the first and second laws of thermodynamics as well as the weak cosmic censorship are still valid. However, in the extended phase space, the second law of thermodynamics is violated for double-horizon black holes and part of single-horizon black holes. The first law of thermodynamics and the weak cosmic censorship conjecture are still valid for all types of black holes. In addition, we found that the shift of the metric function, which determines the locations of the horizons, takes the same form at the minimum point in both the normal and extended phase spaces, indicating that the weak cosmic censorship conjecture is independent of the thermodynamic phase space.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

- Particle physics
- Nuclear physics
- Particle and nuclear astrophysics
- Cosmology

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