2014 Vol. 38, No. 12
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We present the comaprative study of semileptonic and leptonic decays of Ds,D± and D0 meson ( D→ M lα +lβ-,D→lα+lβ-,D→lα+vα ;α,β=e,μ) within the framework of R-parity violating the (Rp) Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The comparison shows that combination and product couplings, (λβiαλ'ijq* or λ'βqk*λ'α jk*) contribution to the branching fractions of the said processes (under consideration) is consistent with or comparable to the experimental measurements in most of the cases. However, some cases exist where these contributions are highly suppressed. We identify such cases in our analysis and single out the important ones suitable for exploring in the future and current experiments.
In this work, the β-stable region for Z≥90 is proposed based on a successful binding energy formula. The calculated β-stable nuclei in the β-stable region are in good agreement with the ones obtained by Möller et al. The half-lives of the nuclei close to the β-stable region are calculated and the competition between α-decay and β-decay is systematically investigated. The calculated half-lives and the suggested decay modes are well in line with the experimental results. The decay modes are mostly β--decay above the β-stable region. Especially for Z≤111, all the decay modes are β--decay. Regarding the nuclei above the β-stable region, α-decay and β--decay (α+β-) can occur simultaneously when Z≥112. This is a very interesting phenomenon. The competition between α-decay and β-decay is very complex and drastic below the β-stable region. The predictions for half-lives and decay modes of the nuclei with Z=107-110 are presented in detail.
The ground state properties of He isotopes are studied in the nonlinear relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory with force parameters NL-SH and TM2. The modified Glauber model is introduced as a gatekeeper to check the calculations. The investigation shows that the RMF theory provides a good description on the properties of He isotopes. The many-body space information of 4He + neutrons is obtained reliably. As a product, the calculation gives strong evidence for a neutron halo in 5He.
For the matrix product system of a one-dimensional spin-1/2 chain, we present a new model of quantum phase transitions and find that in the thermodynamic limit, both sides of the critical point are respectively described by phases |Ψa>=|1…1> representing all particles spin up and |Ψb>=|0…0> representing all particles spin down, while the phase transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling point where the two phases coexist equally, which is described by the so-called N-qubit maximally entangled GHZ state |Ψpt>=√2/2(|1…1>+|0…0>). At the critical point, the physical quantities including the entanglement are not discontinuous and the matrix product system has long-range correlation and N-qubit maximal entanglement. We believe that our work is helpful for having a comprehensive understanding of quantum phase transitions in matrix product states of one-dimensional spin chains and of potential directive significance to the preparation and control of one-dimensional spin lattice models with stable coherence and N-qubit maximal entanglement.
J/ψ suppression in p-A collisions is studied by considering the nuclear effects on parton distribution, energy loss of beam proton and the finial state energy loss of color octet cc. The leading-order computations for J/ψ production cross-section ratios RW/Be(xF) are presented and compared with the selected E866 experimental data with the cc remaining colored on its entire path in the medium. It is shown that the combination of the different nuclear effects accounts quite well for the observed J/ψ suppression in the experimental data. It is found that the J/ψ suppression on RW/Be(xF) from the initial state nuclear effects is more important than that induced by the energy loss of color octet cc in the large xF region. Whether the cc pair energy loss is linear or quadratic with the path length is not determined. The obtained cc pair energy loss per unit path length α=2.78±0.81 GeV/fm, which indicates that the heavy quark in cold nuclear matter can lose more energy compared to the outgoing light quark.
The quadrant silicon detector, a kind of passivated implanted planar silicon detector with quadrant structure on the junction side, gained its wide application in charged particle detection. In this paper, the manufacturing procedure, performance test and results of the quadrant silicon detector developed recently at the China Institute of Atomic Energy are presented. The detector is about 300 μm thick with a 48 mm×48 mm active area. The leakage current under the full depletion bias voltage of -16 V is about 2.5 nA, and the rise time is better than 160 ns. The energy resolution for a 5.157 MeV α-particle is around the level of 1%. Charge sharing effects between the neighboring quads, leading to complicated correlations between two quads, were observed when α particles illuminated on the junction side. It is explained as a result of distortion of the electric field of the inter-quad region. Such an event is only about 0.6% of all events and can be neglected in an actual application.
A prototype of the forward tracking array consisting of three multiwire drift chambers (MWDC) for the external target experiment (CEE) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility at the Lanzhou -Cooling Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR) has been assembled and tested using cosmic rays. The signals from the anode wires are amplified and fed to a Flash-ADC to deliver the drift time and charge integration. The performances of the array prototype are investigated under various high voltages. For the tracking performances, after the space-time relation (STR) calibration and the detector displacement correction, the standard deviation of 223 μm of the residue is obtained. The performances of the forward MWDCs tracking array meets the requirements of CEE in design.
In this paper, we report on the design, simulation and testing of a novel CZT detector with an electrode named the Strengthened Electric Field Line Anode (SEFLA). The Strengthened Electric Field (SEF) technique and Single Polarity Charge Sensing (SPCS) technique are implemented. It could achieve the same performance as Coplanar Grid, Pixel Array CZT detectors but requires only a simple readout system. Geant4, Ansoft Maxwell and a self-developed Induced Current Calculator (ICC) package are used to develop an understanding of how the energy spectrum is formed, and the parameters of the detector are optimized. A prototype is fabricated. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this design. The test shows that the SEFLA detector achieves a FWHM of 6.0% @59.5 keV and 1.6% @662 keV, which matches well with the simulations.
A GEM-TPC prototype, which will be used as a fast neutron spectrometer based on the recoil proton method, is designed and being constructed in Tsinghua University. In order to derive the recoil angle of the recoil proton, tracks of recoil proton in the TPC sensitive volume must be reconstructed. An algorithm based on Hough-transform for track finding and least square method for track fitting was developed in this paper. Based on the Monte Carlo simulation data given by Geant4, a detailed track reconstruction process was introduced and the spectrum of induced fast neutron was derived here. The results show that the algorithm was effective and high-performance. With the recoil angle of the proton less than 30°, a 4.4% FWHM neutron energy resolution was derived for 5 MeV induced fast neutron, and the detection efficiency was about 2×10-4.
In a long-term planning for neutrino experiments in China, a medium baseline neutrino beam is proposed which uses a continue wave (CW) superconducting linac of 15 MW in beam power as the proton driver. The linac will be based on the technologies which are under development by the China-ADS project, namely it is also composed of a 3.2 MeV normal conducting RFQ and five different types of superconducting cavities. However, the design philosophy is quite different from the China-ADS linac because of the much weaker requirement on reliability here. The nominal design energy and current are 1.5 GeV and 10 mA, respectively. The general considerations and preliminary results on the physics design will be presented here. In addition, the alternative designs such as 2.0 GeV and 2.5 GeV, which may be required by the general design, can be easily extended from the nominal one.
The new beam position monitor (BPM) system of the injector at the upgrade project of the Hefei Light Source (HLS Ⅱ) has 19 stripline beam position monitors. Most consist of four orthogonally symmetric stripline electrodes. Differences in electronic gain and mismachining tolerance can cause changes in the beam response of the BPM electrodes. This variation will couple the two measured horizontal positions, resulting in measuring error. To alleviate this effect, a new technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. It is independent of the beam charge, and the related coefficient can be calculated theoretically. The effect of electrode coupling on this technique is analyzed. The calibration data is used to fit the gain for all 19 injector beam position monitors. The results show the standard deviation of the distribution of measured gains is about 5%.
In order to study the backgrounds in the ATF2 beam line and the interaction point (IP), this paper has developed an analytical method to give an estimation of the ATF beam halo distribution based on K. Hirata and K. Yokoya's theory. The equilibrium particle distribution of the beam tail in the ATF damping ring is presented, with each electron affected by several stochastic processes such as beam-gas scattering, beam-gas bremsstrahlung and intra-beam scattering, in addition to the synchrotron radiation damping effects. This is a general method which can also be applied to other electron rings.
In this paper, we focus on a PIG source for producing intense H-ions inside a 9 MeV cyclotron. The properties of the PIG ion source were simulated for a variety of electric field distributions and magnetic field strengths using a CST particle studio. After analyzing the secondary electron emission (SEE) as a function of both magnetic and electric field strengths, we found that for the modeled PIG geometry, a magnetic field strength of 0.2 T provided the best results in terms of the number of secondary electrons. Furthermore, at 0.2 T, the number of secondary electrons proved to be greatest regardless of the cathode potential. Also, the modified PIG ion source with quartz insulation tubes was tested in a KIRAMS-13 cyclotron by varying the gas flow rate and arc current, respectively. The capacity of the designed ion source was also demonstrated by producing plasma inside the constructed 9 MeV cyclotron. As a result, the ion source is verified as being capable of producing an intense H- beam and high ion beam current for the desired 9 MeV cyclotron. The simulation results provide experimental constraints for optimizing the strength of the plasma and final ion beam current at a target inside a cyclotron.
Megaelectronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a promising detection tool for ultrafast processes. The quality of diffraction image is determined by the transverse evolution of the probe bunch. In this paper, we study the contributing terms of the emittance and space charge effects to the bunch evolution in the MeV UED scheme, employing a mean-field model with an ellipsoidal distribution as well as particle tracking simulation. The small transverse dimension of the drive laser is found to be critical to improve the reciprocal resolution, exploiting both smaller emittance and larger transverse bunch size before the solenoid. The degradation of the reciprocal spatial resolution caused by the space charge effects should be carefully controlled.
An ionizing radiation hazard produced from the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets has been observed. Laser-plasma interactions create "hot" electrons, which generate bremsstrahlung X-rays when they interact with ions in the target. However, up to now only limited studies have been conducted on this laser-induced radiological protection issue. In this paper, the physical process and characteristics of the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets are analyzed. The parameters of the radiation sources are discussed, including the energy conversion efficiency from laser to hot electrons, hot electron energy spectrum and electron temperature, and the bremsstrahlung X-ray energy spectrum produced by hot electrons. Based on this information, the X-ray dose generated with high-Z targets for laser intensities between 1014 and 1020 W/cm2 is estimated. The shielding effects of common shielding items such as the glass view port, aluminum chamber wall and concrete wall are also studied using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. This study provides a reference for the dose estimation and the shielding design of high intensity laser facilities.
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