Effective Photon Mass in Finite Nuclei

  • The electromagnetic field in nuclear Fermi gas and nuclei has been studied. Because in the nuclear Fermi gas the expectation value of the electric charge density operator is not zero, different from that in vacuum, the U(1) local gauge symmetry of electric charge is spontaneously broken in the nuclear Fermi gas, and consequently, the photon gains an effective mass. Perturbation calculation of the photon self-energy shows that the effective mass of photon is about 5 42MeV in the symmetric nuclear Fermi gas at the saturation density ρ0=0.16fm-3 and about 2.0MeV at the surface of 238U. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is just the two body decay of a massive photon that causes the discovery of sharp lines of electron positron pairs in low energy 238U+232Th heavy ion collisions experiments.
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  • [1] . Cowan T E et al.Phys.Rev.Lett.,1986,56:444 2. Cowan T E et al.In: Physics of Strong Fields.edited by W .Greiner.New York: Plenum Press,1987.111 3. Salabura P et al.Phys.Lett.,1990,B245:153 4. Ahmad I et al. Phys.Rev.Lett.,1995,75:2658 5. Griffin J J. nucl- th/9601034,1996,B27:2087 6. Griffin J J. nucl -th/9703006 7. Griffin J J. nucl -th/9703041 8. Griffin J J .nucl -th/9802044,The APEX /EPOS Quandary: The Way Out via Low Energy Studies. In: Gadioli Eed.Proc. 8th Int’l Conf. on Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms. Varenna, Italy:June9–14,1997,493—502 9. Serot B D ,Walecka J D . The Relativistic Nuclear Many body Problem. In: Negele J W ,Vogt E ed.Advances in Nuclear Physics,16.NewYork:Plenum Press.1986.1—327 10. Schaffner J et al.Ann.Phys.,1994,235:35 11. Ring P .Prog. Part.Nucl.Phys.,1996,37:193 12. Itzykson C ,Zuber J B .Quantum Field Theory.Mc Graw Hill Inc.,1980.519 13. Lurie D .Particles and Fields.Interscience Publishers,1968.282 14. deVries H et al. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables,1987,36:495
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SUN Bao-Xi, LV Xiao-Fu, SHEN Peng-Nian and ZHAO En-Guang. Effective Photon Mass in Finite Nuclei[J]. Chinese Physics C, 2003, 27(4): 337-340.
SUN Bao-Xi, LV Xiao-Fu, SHEN Peng-Nian and ZHAO En-Guang. Effective Photon Mass in Finite Nuclei[J]. Chinese Physics C, 2003, 27(4): 337-340. shu
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Received: 2002-07-12
Revised: 1900-01-01
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Effective Photon Mass in Finite Nuclei

    Corresponding author: SUN Bao-Xi,
  • Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100039, China2 Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080, China3 Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China4 Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator, Lanzhou 730000, China5 Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China6 China Center of Advanced Science and Technology World Laboratory, Beijing 100080, China

Abstract: The electromagnetic field in nuclear Fermi gas and nuclei has been studied. Because in the nuclear Fermi gas the expectation value of the electric charge density operator is not zero, different from that in vacuum, the U(1) local gauge symmetry of electric charge is spontaneously broken in the nuclear Fermi gas, and consequently, the photon gains an effective mass. Perturbation calculation of the photon self-energy shows that the effective mass of photon is about 5 42MeV in the symmetric nuclear Fermi gas at the saturation density ρ0=0.16fm-3 and about 2.0MeV at the surface of 238U. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is just the two body decay of a massive photon that causes the discovery of sharp lines of electron positron pairs in low energy 238U+232Th heavy ion collisions experiments.

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