## 2015 Vol. 39, No. 5

Display Method: |

2015, 39(5): 053101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/053101

**Abstract:**

The spin is an important property of a particle. Although it is unlikely, there is still a possibility that two particles with di erent spins share similar masses. In this paper, we propose a method to probe this kind of mass degeneracy of particles with di erent spins. We use the cascade decay B

^{+}→X(3872)K

^{+}, X(3872)→D

^{+}D

^{-}to illustrate our method. It can be seen that the possible mass degeneracy of X(3872) can lead to interesting behavior in the corresponding cascade decay.

2015, 39(5): 053102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/053102

**Abstract:**

A new Hamiltonian model is introduced to study the spectrum of light hadrons. It combines relativistic field theory with elements of the constituent quark model. In addition to the standard linear confining and pseudoscalar meson exchange interactions with predetermined parameters, an additional interaction with different covariant spin structures is examined. Using a large scale Monte Carlo variational procedure, the resulting model Hamiltonian provides a very good, unified description of the light quark baryon (both octet and decuplet) and meson spectra.

2015, 39(5): 054001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/054001

**Abstract:**

The Coulomb barrier and electron screening cause difficulties in directly measuring nuclear reaction cross sections of charged particles at astrophysical energies. The Trojan-horse method (THM) has been introduced to solve the difficulties as a powerful indirect tool. In order to understand experimental spectra better, Geant4 is employed to simulate the method. Validity and reliability of simulation data are examined by comparing the experimental data with simulated results. The Geant4 simulation of THM improves data analysis and is beneficial to the design for future related experiments.

2015, 39(5): 054101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/054101

**Abstract:**

Calculations of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) from the

^{235}U(n, f) reaction were performed with a semi-empirical method for

*E*

_{n}=7.0 and 14.7 MeV neutron energies. The total PFNS were obtained as a superposition of (n,xnf) pre-fission neutron spectra and post-fission spectra of neutrons which were evaporated from fission fragments, and these two kinds of spectra were taken as an expression of the evaporation spectrum. The contributions of (n,xnf) fission neutron spectra on the calculated PFNS were discussed. The results show that emission of one or two neutrons in the (n,nf) or (n,2nf) reactions influences the PFNS shape, and the neutron spectra of the (n,xnf) fission-channel are soft compared with the neutron spectra of the (n,f) fission channel. In addition, analysis of the multiple-chance fission component showed that second-chance fission dominates the PFNS with an incident neutron energy of 14.7 MeV whereas first-chance fission dominates the 7 MeV case.

2015, 39(5): 054102. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/054102

**Abstract:**

The evaporation residue cross section anisotropy of the fission fragment angular distribution, pre-scission neutron multiplicity and the pre-saddle and post-saddle contributions of the pre-scission neutron multiplicity were analyzed within a stochastic approach based on one-, two- and three-dimensional Langevin equations for the compound nucleus

^{224}Th formed via a complete fusion. In these calculations, dissipation was generated through the chaos weighted wall and window friction formula. Comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental data showed that three-dimensional Langevin equations with dissipation generated through the chaos weighted wall and window friction formula make it possible to reproduce satisfactorily the above-mentioned experimental data.

2015, 39(5): 054103. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/054103

**Abstract:**

The unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) and the similarity renormalization group theory (SRG) are compared and discussed in the framework of the no-core Monte Carlo shell model (MCSM) calculations for

^{3}H and

^{4}He. The treatment of spurious center-of-mass motion by Lawson's prescription is performed in the MCSM calculations. These results with both transformed interactions show good suppression of spurious center-of-mass motion with proper Lawson's prescription parameter

*β*

_{c.m.}values. The UCOM potentials obtain faster convergence of total energy for the ground state than that of SRG potentials in the MCSM calculations, which differs from the cases in the no-core shell model calculations (NCSM). These differences are discussed and analyzed in terms of the truncation scheme in the MCSM and NCSM, as well as the properties of the potentials of SRG and UCOM.

2015, 39(5): 054104. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/054104

**Abstract:**

We investigate the time-dependent probability for a Brownian particle passing over the barrier to stay at a metastable potential pocket against escaping over the barrier. This is related to the whole fusion-fission dynamical process and can be called the reverse Kramers problem. By the passing probability over the saddle point of an inverse harmonic potential multiplying the exponential decay factor of a particle in the metastable potential, we present an approximate expression for the modified passing probability over the barrier, in which the effect of the reflection boundary of the potential is taken into account. Our analytical result and Langevin Monte-Carlo simulation show that the probability of passing and against escaping over the barrier is a non-monotonous function of time and its maximal value is less than the stationary result of the passing probability over the saddle point of an inverse harmonic potential.

2015, 39(5): 054105. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/054105

**Abstract:**

The spectroscopic properties and angular momentum geometry of the wobbling motion of a simple triaxial rotor are investigated within the triaxial rotor model. The obtained exact solutions of energy spectra and reduced quadrupole transition probabilities are compared to the approximate analytic solutions from the harmonic approximation formula and Holstein-Primakoff formula. It is found that the low lying wobbling bands can be well described by the analytic formulae. The evolution of the angular momentum geometry as well as the

*K*-distribution with respect to the rotation and the wobbling phonon excitation are studied in detail. It is demonstrated that with the increase of the wobbling phonon number, the triaxial rotor changes its wobbling motions along the axis with the largest moment of inertia to the axis with the smallest moment of inertia. In this process, a specific evolutionary track that can be used to depict the motion of a triaxial rotating nucleus is proposed.

2015, 39(5): 055101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/055101

**Abstract:**

The WMAP and Planck observations show that the quadrupole and octopole orientations of the CMB might align with each other. We reveal that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is a natural implication of the primordial power spectrum in an anisotropic spacetime. The primordial power spectrum is presented with a dipolar modulation. We obtain the privileged plane by employing the “power tensor” technique. At this plane, there is maximum correlation between quadrupole and octopole. The probability for the alignment is much larger than that in the isotropic universe. We find that this model would lead to deviations from the statistical isotropy only for low-

*l*multipoles.

2015, 39(5): 056001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/056001

**Abstract:**

We have developed a large area multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a standard for the measurement of alpha and beta surface emission rate at the Shanghai Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology (SIMT). To shorten the preparation time for chamber gas refilling, a self-designed gas control unit was adopted. Various characteristics of the system have been studied. The uncertainties were analysed. Three certified alpha plane sources (Am-241) and six certified beta plane sources (Tl-204 and Sr-90/Y-90) were measured by this system. The results show excellent agreement with the surface emission rate reported by the National Institute of Measuring, China (NIM) that

*E*

_{n}values of all measured sources are within ±1.

2015, 39(5): 056002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/056002

**Abstract:**

A new thermal neutron detector with a domestically produced THGEM (Thick Gas Electron Multiplier) was developed as an alternative to

^{3}He to meet the needs of the next generation of neutron facilities. One type of Au-coated THGEM was designed specifically for neutron detection. A detector prototype has been developed and the preliminary experimental tests are presented, including the performance of the Au-coated THGEM working in Ar/CO

_{2}gas mixtures and the neutron imaging test with

^{252}Cf source, which can provide the reference for experimental data for research in the future.

2015, 39(5): 056003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/056003

**Abstract:**

In order to test the performance of detector prototypes in a laboratory environment, we design and build a large area (90 cm×52 cm) test platform for cosmic rays based on a well-designed Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) with excellent time resolution and a high detection efficiency for minimum ionizing particles. The time resolution of the MRPC module used is tested to be ～80 ps, and the position resolution along the strip is ～5 mm, while the position resolution perpendicular to the strip is ～12.7 mm. The platform constructed by four MRPC modules can be used for tracking cosmic rays with a spatial resolution of ～6.3 mm, and provide a reference time ～40 ps.

2015, 39(5): 056101. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/056101

**Abstract:**

A new fast waveform sampling digitizing circuit based on the domino ring sampler (DRS), a switched capacitor array (SCA) chip, is presented in this paper, which is different from the traditional waveform digitizing circuit constructed with an analog to digital converter (ADC) or time to digital converter. A DRS4 chip is used as a core device in our circuit, which has a fast sampling rate up to five gigabit samples per second (GSPS). Quite satisfactory results are acquired by the preliminary performance test for this circuit board. Eight channels can be provided by one board, which has a 1 V input dynamic range for each channel. The circuit linearity is better than 0.1%, the noise is less than 0.5 mV (root mean square, RMS), and its time resolution is about 50 ps. Several boards can be cascaded to construct a multi-board system. The advantages of high resolution, low cost, low power dissipation, high channel density and small size make the circuit board useful not only for physics experiments, but also for other applications.

2015, 39(5): 056201. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/056201

**Abstract:**

A precise background evaluation model is proposed to address the complex data structure of the delayed coincidence method, which is widely used in reactor electron-antineutrino oscillation experiments. In this model, effects from the muon veto, uncorrelated random background, and background are all studied analytically, simplifying the estimation of the systematic uncertainties of signal efficiency and accidental background rate. The results of the calculations are validated numerically with a number of simulation studies and also applied and validated in the recent Daya Bay hydrogen-capture based oscillation measurement.

2015, 39(5): 057001. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/057001

**Abstract:**

The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect in a bending path plays an important role in transverse emittance dilution in high-brightness light sources and linear colliders, where the electron beams are of short bunch length and high peak current. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by CSR is critical to preserve the beam quality and help improve the machine performance. It has been shown that the CSR effect in a double-bend achromat (DBA) can be analyzed with the two-dimensional point-kick analysis method. In this paper, this method is applied to analyze the CSR effect in a triple-bend achromat (TBA) with symmetric layout, which is commonly used in the optics designs of energy recovery linacs (ERLs). A condition of cancelling the CSR linear effect in such a TBA is obtained, and is verified through numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that emittance preservation can be achieved with this condition, and to a large extent, has a high tolerance to the fluctuation of the initial transverse phase space distribution of the beam.

2015, 39(5): 057002. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/057002

**Abstract:**

The ADS (Accelerator Driven subcritical System) driver linac in China is designed to run in CW (Continuous Wave) mode with 10 mA designed beam current. In this scenario, the beam-induced parasitic modes in the ADS driver linac may make the beam unstable or deteriorate the beam performance. To evaluate the parasitic mode effect on the beam dynamics systematically, simulation studies using the ROOT-based numerical code SMD have been conducted. The longitudinal beam instability induced by the HOMs (High Order Modes) and SOMs (Same Order Modes) has little effect on the longitudinal beam performance for the current ADS driver linac design based on the 10 MeV/325 MHz injector I from previous studies. Here the transverse parasitic mode (i.e., dipole HOM) effect on the transverse beam performance at the ADS driver linac exit is investigated. To more reasonably quantify the dipole mode effect, the multi-bunch effective emittance is introduced in this paper.

2015, 39(5): 057003. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/057003

**Abstract:**

We experimentally studied ion behavior and interelectrode breakdown voltage. The ion behavior of a drift tube directly influences the detection of ion intensity, and then influences the detection sensitivity of a system. Interelectrode voltage and pressure directly influence the ion behavior. Gas discharge between electrodes influences the adjustments required for interelectrode voltage. The experimental results show: ion intensity increases exponentially with the increment of voltage between drift electrodes; ion intensity decreases exponentially as pressure increases; with the increment of pressure, the breakdown voltage at first decreases, and then increases; ion injection has a significant influence on breakdown voltage, and this influence depends on the pressure and shapes of the electrodes. We explain the results above through assumptions and by mathematical methods.

2015, 39(5): 057004. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/057004

**Abstract:**

A new 7.0 T asymmetric active shield superconducting magnet for Penning traps is proposed in this work. The magnet has two field regions whose homogeneity is better than 0.5 ppm. Linear and nonlinear methods are used for the asymmetric electromagnetic optimization. Stress analysis, mechanical design and a quench protection system design are also introduced in this paper.

2015, 39(5): 057005. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/057005

**Abstract:**

This paper focuses on the RF study of a C-band barrel open cavity (BOC) pulse compressor. The operating principle of BOC is presented and the technical specifications are determined. The main parts of BOC such as the cavity, the matching waveguide, the coupling slots and the tuning rings were numerically simulated by 3-D codes software HFSS and CST Microwave Studio (MWS). The “whispering gallery” mode TM

_{6,1,1}with an unload

*Q*of 100000 was chosen to oscillate in the cavity. An energy multiplication factor of 1.99 and a peak power gain of 6.34 was achieved theoretically.

2015, 39(5): 057006. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/057006

**Abstract:**

ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) and the National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics Technology” (NSC KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine) jointly propose to design and build a 100 MeV/100 kW linear accelerator which will be used to drive the neutron source subcritical assembly. The linac has almost finished assembly in KIPT by a team from the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP, Beijing, China). The design and measurement result of the accelerating system of the linac will be described in this paper.

2015, 39(5): 057007. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/057007

**Abstract:**

Waveguide directional couplers working at 5.712/11.9924 GHz are developed. Even holes symmetrical to the structure are drilled along the central line of the narrow-wall of the waveguide, which are used to couple the electromagnetic power from the main-waveguide to the sub-waveguide. The final prototypes have achieved satisfactory performances of high-power, ultra-high-vacuum and high-directivity. The microwave measurement results are also qualified.

2015, 39(5): 057008. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/057008

**Abstract:**

A new H

^{-}ion source has been installed successfully and will be used to serve the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). In this paper, we report various components of the ion source, including the discharge chamber, temperature, cooling system, extraction electrodes, analyzing magnet, remote control system and so on. Compared to the previous experimental ion source, some improvements have been made to make the ion source more compact and convenient. In the present arrangement, the Penning field is generated by a pair of pole tip extensions on the 90° analyzing magnet instead of by a separate circuit. For the remote control system, F3RP61-2L is applied to the accelerator online control system for the first time. In the running of the ion source, a stable pulse H

^{-}beam with a current of 50 mA at an energy of 50 keV is produced. The extraction frequency and pulse width is 25 Hz and 500 μs, respectively. Furthermore, an emittance scanner has been installed and measurements are in progress.

2015, 39(5): 057009. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/39/5/057009

**Abstract:**

In a superconducting CH (cross bar H mode) cavity, the method of regulating the length of a drift tube is employed to adjust the distribution of the accelerating field. In this article, we simulate the electromagnetic field of a CH structure to illustrate the reason for adjusting the field distribution by varying drift tube length. Meanwhile, that the presence of the drift tube will cause a sharp rise in the maximum electric field is also shown. This phenomenon is contrary to superconducting cavity design principles in which the cavity geometry needs to be optimized to reduce the maximum electric field to avoid field emission. We propose a variable diameter superconducting CH cavity design to solve this conflict. The simulation of the variable diameter superconducting CH cavity shows that this method is feasible.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

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- Cosmology

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