## 2011 Vol. 35, No. 6

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2011, 35(6): 519-524. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/001

**Abstract:**

We calculate the D → η transition form factor in light-cone sum rules by taking improved current correlators to avoid the pollution from the twist-3 wave function. We get consistent results of the D

^{+}→ η

^{(')}l

^{+}ν

_{l}decays with the experimental data. By comparing the difference between the results of the branching ratios of D

^{+}→ η

^{(')}l

^{+}ν

_{l}from a two-pole parameterization model and from a BZ parameterization model, we find that the two-pole model and the BZ model are comparably believable. One way is supposed for the determination of the η-η' mixing angle from the dependence of the branching ratios of D

^{+}→ η

^{(')}l

^{+}ν

_{l}decays on the η-η' mixing angle.

2011, 35(6): 525-529. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/002

**Abstract:**

A classic mass loaded flux tube model and the diquark picture are employed to explore both mesons and baryons. The spectrum of Λ

_{c}

^{+}baryons and D

_{s}mesons is systematically obtained. The spin-orbit interaction in D

_{s}was simplified as an

*L*·

*S*coupling. The spin-orbit interaction in Λ

_{c}was simplified as a

*J*

_{l}·

*J*

_{c}coupling. The predicted masses are consistent with the latest experiments.

2011, 35(6): 530-534. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/003

**Abstract:**

In this paper, based on the Bose-Hubbard model with two-body on-site interactions, we study the quantum phase transition between the superfluid state and the Mott-insulator state. With the decoupling approximation, we get the relation between the weak superfluidity and dimensionless chemical potential with different particle number and different dimensionless interaction strength, and the relation between the weak superfluidity and the reciprocal of dimensionless interaction strength with different particle number. We also calculate the corresponding experimental parameters.

2011, 35(6): 535-538. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/004

**Abstract:**

We present an explicit connection between the symmetries in a Very Special Relativity (VSR) and isometric group of a specific Finsler space. It is shown that the line element that is invariant under the VSR symmetric group is a Finslerian one. The Killing vectors in Finsler space are constructed in a systematic way. The Lie algebras corresponding to the symmetries of VSR are obtained from a geometric famework. The dispersion relation and the Lorentz invariance violation effect in the VSR are discussed.

2011, 35(6): 539-542. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/005

**Abstract:**

Influences of the bag constant on the properties of hybrid stars are investigated by using relativistic mean field theory and the MIT bag model to describe the hadron phase and quark phase in the interior of neutron stars, respectively. Our results indicate that the onset of hadron-quark phase transition is put off and the appearance of hyperon species is increased with the increase in bag constant. As a result, the hybrid star equation of state for a mixed phase range stiffens whereas that of the quark phase range softens, and the gravitational mass as well as the corresponding radius of hybrid stars are increased obviously. The gravitational mass of a hybrid star is increased from 1.42

*M*

_{⊙}(

*M*

_{⊙}is solar mass) to 1.63

*M*

_{⊙}and the corresponding radius is changed from 9.1 km to 12.2 km when the bag constant (

*B*

^{1/4}) is increased from 170 MeV to 200 MeV. It is interesting to find that hybrid star equations of state become non-smooth when the TM2 parameter sets in the framework of relativistic mean field theory used to describe the hadronic matter, and consequently, the third family of compact stars appear in the mass-radius relations of hybrid stars in the narrow scope of the bag constant from 175 MeV to 180 MeV. These show that the choice of the bag constant in the MIT bag model has significant influence on the properties of hybrid stars.

2011, 35(6): 543-544. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/006

**Abstract:**

We have examined the parametrization of the e

^{+}e

^{-}→ ωπ

^{0}cross section in the vicinity of the φ resonance and the extraction of the branching fraction of the isospin violating process φ → ωπ

^{0}from experimental data. We found that there are two possible solutions of the branching fraction: one is 4 × 10

^{-5}, and the other is 7 × 10

^{-3}. The latter is two orders of magnitude higher than the former, which is the commonly accepted one.

Reinvestigation of the high spin states in

^{161}Er and enhanced E1 transitions in the*N*=93 isotones
2011, 35(6): 545-549. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/007

**Abstract:**

High-spin states in

^{161}Er have been studied experimentally using the

^{150}Nd(

^{16}O, 5n) reaction at a beam energy of 86 MeV. The relatively enhanced E1 transitions between the 5/2

^{+}[642] and 3/2

^{-}[521] bands are observed in

^{161}Er, and the

*B*(E1) values are extracted experimentally. The systematics of the

*R*(E1) values in the

*N*=93 isotones are presented. It is found that the strength of the E1 transitions obviously exhibits angular momentum dependence, and the occurrence of the relatively enhanced E1 transitions could be attributed to octupole softness.

2011, 35(6): 550-554. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/008

**Abstract:**

A microscopic cluster model with a fully correlated Gaussian basis is developed. In the model, the stochastic variational method is used in order to calculate the ground-energy and the mean-square radius conveniently. Based on this model, the ground-energy level and radius of the neutron halo nucleus,

^{6}He, are calculated as a α+n+n three-cluster model. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

2011, 35(6): 555-560. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/009

**Abstract:**

The correlation between neutron-to-proton yield ratio (

*R*

_{np}) and neutron skin thickness (

*δ*

_{np}) in neutron-rich projectile induced reactions is investigated within the framework of the Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. The density distribution of the Droplet model is embedded in the initialization of the neutron and proton densities in the present IQMD model. By adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutron density in the Droplet model for the projectile, the relationship between the neutron skin thickness and the corresponding

*R*

_{np}is obtained. The results show strong linear correlation between

*R*

_{np}and

*δ*

_{np}for neutron-rich Ca and Ni isotopes. It is suggested that

*R*

_{np}may be used as an experimental observable to extract

*δ*

_{np}for neutron-rich nuclei, which is very interesting in the study of the nuclear structure of exotic nuclei, the equation of state (EOS) of asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron-rich matter in astrophysics, etc.

2011, 35(6): 561-566. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/010

**Abstract:**

In the frame of the quark recombination model, we study the momentum distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets by analyzing the final state hadrons generated by PYTHIA for the hard parton fragmentation processes in vacuum. Parameterizations for the distributions are tabulated.

2011, 35(6): 567-571. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/011

**Abstract:**

The evolution of nuclear disintegration mechanisms with increasing excitation energy, from compound nucleus to multifragmentation, has been studied by using the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM) within a micro-canonical ensemble. We discuss the observable characteristics as functions of excitation energy in multifragmentation, concentrating on the isospin dependence of the model in its decaying mechanism and break-up fragment configuration by comparing the

*A*

_{0}=200,

*Z*

_{0}=78 and

*A*

_{0}=200,

*Z*

_{0}=100 systems. The calculations indicate that the neutron-rich system (

*Z*

_{0}=78) translates to a fission-like process from evaporation later than the symmetric nucleus at a lower excitation energy, but gets a larger average multiplicity as the excitation energy increases above 1.0 MeV/u.

2011, 35(6): 572-575. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/012

**Abstract:**

A very high frame rate camera is designed based on an innovative CCD driving method. The CCD driving method is mainly implemented on frame transfer CCDs. Asynchronous drive timing sequences are applied in the image and storage section of the CCDs. Several rows of the charge in the image section are binned onto the same row in the storage section, and there are the same number of images to be stored in the storage section before they are read out. Based on the new driving method, the frame transfer CCDs can work at a very high frame rate in acquiring burst images though the reading speed remains at a lower level. A very high frame rate camera is designed in this paper. The innovative CCD driving method is mainly of concern. An e2v's CCD60 is adopted in the camera system, whose full size resolution is 128 × 128, and the up most frame rate is 1000 Hz in the conventional CCD driving method. By using the presented method, the CCD60 based imager is capable of operating at up to 40000 frames per second (fps) at a recognizable resolution of 128 × 32. Comparing cameras using traditional binning and region of interest technologies, the frame rate is normally less than 5000 fps while the resolution is only 32 × 32 left.

2011, 35(6): 576-579. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/013

**Abstract:**

A free-air ionization chamber in low-energy X-ray has been designed and manufactured at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM, China) according to the defination of air-kerma. The results of a preliminary test show that the leakage current of ionization chamber is around 2 × 10

^{-15}A, and the correction factor of ion recombination for the ionization chamber is also obtained. The free-air ionization chamber is suitable for the primary standard in low-energy X-rays.

2011, 35(6): 580-584. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/014

**Abstract:**

A test statistic is proposed to perform the goodness-of-fit test in the unbinned maximum likelihood fit. Without using a detailed expression of the efficiency function, the test statistic is found to be strongly correlated with the maximum likelihood function if the efficiency function varies smoothly. We point out that the correlation coefficient can be estimated by the Monte Carlo technique. With the established method, two examples are given to illustrate the performance of the test statistic.

2011, 35(6): 585-589. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/015

**Abstract:**

For a practical linac, the beam property is affected seriously by any machine imperfections. In this paper, the effects of several main errors in the ILC main linac, such as quadrupole misalignment, magnet strength error and cavity misalignment, were studied by a theoretical method. The tolerance for each error was also obtained. Comparison with the numerical simulation result is made and the agreement is quite good.

2011, 35(6): 590-595. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/016

**Abstract:**

The TRIUMF Injector CryoModule (ICM) adapted two superconducting single cavities as the capture section for the low injecting energy of 100 keV electrons. Coupler kick induced beam deflection and projected emittance growth are one of the prime concerns of the beam stability, especially at low energies. In low energy applications, the electron velocity changes rapidly inside the cavity, which makes the numerical analysis much more complicated. The commonly used theoretical formulas of the direct integral or the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem is not suitable for the kick calculation of

*β*<1 electrons. Despite that, the above mentioned kick calculation method doesn't consider injecting electron energy, the beam offset due to the coupler kick may not be negligible because of the low injection energy even if the kick is optimized. Thus the beam dynamics code TRACK is used here for the simulation of the power coupler kick perturbation. The coupler kick can be compensated for by a judicious choice of the coupler position in successive cavities from upstream to downstream. The simulation shows that because of the adiabatic damping by the following superconducting 9-cell cavity, even for the worst orbit distortion case after two capture cavities, the kick is still acceptable at the exit of the ICM after reaching 10 MeV. This paper presents the analysis of the transverse kick and the projected emittance growth induced by the coupler for

*β*<1 electrons. The simulated results of the TRIUMF ICM capture cavities are described and presented.

2011, 35(6): 596-602. doi: 10.1088/1674-1137/35/6/017

**Abstract:**

China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is the first High Energy Intense Proton Accelerator planned to be constructed in China during the State Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, whose induced radioactivity is very important for occupational disease hazard assessment and environmental impact assessment. Adopting the FLUKA code, the authors have constructed a cylinder-tunnel geometric model and a line-source sampling physical model, deduced proper formulas to calculate air activation, and analyzed various issues with regard to the activation of different tunnel parts. The results show that the environmental impact resulting from induced activation is negligible, whereas the residual radiation in the tunnels has a great influence on maintenance personnel, so strict measures should be adopted.

**ISSN** 1674-1137 **CN** 11-5641/O4

Original research articles, Ietters and reviews Covering theory and experiments in the fieids of

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