2011 Vol. 35, No. 5
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It has been conjectured that the relative phase between strong and electromagnetic amplitudes is universally -90° in charmonium decays. ψ' decaying into a pseudoscalar pair provides a possibility to test this conjecture. However, the experimentally observed cross section for such a process is depicted by the two-fold integral, which takes into account the initial state radiative (ISR) correction and energy spread effect. Using the generalized linear regression approach, a complex energy-dependent factor is approximated by a linear function of energy. Taking advantage of this simplification, the integration of ISR correction can be performed and an analytical expression with accuracy at the level of 1% is obtained. Then, the original two-fold integral is simplified into a one-fold integral, which reduces the total computing time by two orders of magnitude. Such a simplified expression for the observed cross section usually plays an indispensable role in the optimization of scan data taking, the determination of systematic uncertainty, and the analysis of data correlation.
We indicated in our previous work that for QED the contributions of the scalar potential, which appears at the loop level, is much smaller than that of the vector potential, and in fact negligible. But the situation may be different for QCD, the reason being that the loop effects are more significant because \alpha_m s is much larger than \alpha, and secondly the non-perturbative QCD effects may induce the scalar potential. In this work, we phenomenologically study the contribution of the scalar potential to the spectra of charmonia. Taking into account both vector and scalar potentials, by fitting the well measured charmonia spectra, we re-fix the relevant parameters and test them by calculating other states of the charmonia family. We also consider the role of the Lamb shift and present the numerical results with and without involving the Lamb shift.
Using the sequential decay process m e+e- → J/ψ → ΛΛ, Λ → pπ-, Λ → pπ+ as an example, the procedure for deducing the full angular distribution is illustrated by adopting both the Jacob-Wick and Jackson conventions in the helicity formalism. To make sure that the final physical result is free of phase conventions, we point out that the coefficients that relate the angular momentum states in different coordinate systems of reference frames have to be taken into account properly in the procedure. The fact that those coefficients are constants suggests that the Jackson convention is favorable in dealing with the processes with sequential decays.
We give a brief overview of the Ho345;avity theory, its modifications and its implications in cosmology. In particular, we discuss the various issues on the gravitational scalar mode, including its decoupling, its role as inflaton and its stability. Our analysis shows that the scalar mode could decouple naturally at λ=1 due to the extra gauge symmetry. On the other hand, the fact that the scalar mode becomes ghost when 1/3< λ < 1 is a real challenge to the theory. We try to overcome this problem by modifying the action such that the RG flow lies outside the problematic region. We discuss the cosmological implications of the theory.
The multiplicity distribution of projectile protons and multiplicity correlations between black particles, grey particles, shower particles, compound particles, heavily ionized track particles, projectile helium fragments and projectile spectator protons in 84Kr-emulsion collisions at 1.7 A GeV are investigated. It is found that the projectile spectator proton multiplicity distribution becomes broader with increasing target mass. The average multiplicity of shower particles and compound particles strongly depends on the number of projectile spectator protons, but the average multiplicity of black particles, grey particles and heavily ionized track particles weakly depends on the number of projectile spectator protons. The average multiplicity of projectile helium fragments increases linearly with increasing numbers of projectile spectator protons. Finally, the multiplicity distribution of projectile spectator protons obeys a KNO type of scaling law.
High-spin states in 185Pt have been reinvestigated via the reaction 173Yb(16O, 4n) at a beam energy of 90 MeV. The previously known band based on the ν7/2-(f7/2) Nilsson orbital has been extended to higher spin states. Properties of the ν7/2-(f7/2) band have been discussed with an emphasis on the evolution of configuration while increasing the spin.
Utilizing the cross sections for 93Nb(n, 2n)93mNb or 27Al(n, a)24Na reactions as monitors, the cross sections for the reactions 115Sn(n, p)115mIn, 116Sn(n, p)116mIn, 117Sn(n, p)117In and 117Sn(n, p)117mIn have been measured at neutron energy ranging from 13.5 to 14.6 MeV through activation technology. Then, the results of present work were compared with the published experimental data.
The possible change of nuclear decay rates in different environments has long been an interesting topic due to its importance not only in nuclear physics but also in astrophysics, geological dating, condensed matter physics, etc. The progress in the investigation of variations in nuclear decay rates are reviewed.
We study the correlation between the trigger π and the associated J/ψ on near and away sides in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. In the region of trigger momentum pt>4 GeV/c, the π spectrum is composed of thermal-shower and shower-shower recombinations in the frame work of the recombination model. We consider the azimuthal anisotropy in the quenched hard parton distribution and then calculate the elliptic flow parameter v2 of charmed mesons (J/ψ, D0 and Ds) for different centralities.
The mean transverse velocity and elliptic flow of light fragments (A ≤ 2) as a function of transverse radius are studied for 25 MeV/nucleon 64Cu+64Cu collisions with impact parameters 3--5 fm by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. By comparison between the in-plane and the out-of-plane transverse velocities, the elliptic flow dependence on the transverse radius can be understood qualitatively, and variation of the direction of the resultant force on the fragments can be investigated qualitatively.
The STAR Collaboration has offered an eminent nuclear modification factor of J/ψ at high pT and midrapidity produced in Cu-Cu collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. Recalling a prediction, we can understand that the feature of high-pT nuclear modification factor is related to cc produced by 2 → 1 and 2 → 2 partonic processes in deconfined matter, particularly in the prethermal stage and to the recombination of c and c. The nuclear modification factor at high pT is sensitive to the earliest form of deconfined matter that does not have a temperature.
Kurtosis is regarded as a meaningful and promising observable in searching for the possible critical point predicted by QCD. In this paper, the effects of elliptic flow and resonance decay process on the Kurtosis have been studied with Monte Carlo event generators in Au + Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. The results show that the Kurtosis is not sensitive to elliptic flow and resonance decay process.
We introduce a method to study anisotropic flow parameter vn as a collective probe to Quark Gluon Plasma in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The emphasis is put on the use of the Fourier expansion of initial spatial azimuthal distributions of participant nucleons in the overlapped region. The coefficients εn of Fourier expansion are called the spatial anisotropy parameter for the n-th harmonic. We propose that collective dynamics can be studied by vn/εn. In this paper, we will discuss in particular the second (n=2) and the fourth (n=4) harmonics.
Based on the multi-coincidence measurement, the time resolution of three liquid scintillation detectors (BC501A) were determined strictly by solving the coincidence equations, where the influence from electronics estimated by self coincidence measurement as well as the background had been considered. The result of this work agreed well with the result that was deduced from the traditional method, and it will be helpful to analyze the energy resolution of neutron time of flight spectra measured by using such detectors at CIAE (China Institute of Atomic Energy).
The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project is proposed to study high energy gamma ray astronomy (40 GeV--1 PeV) and cosmic ray physics (20 TeV--1 EeV). The wide field of view Cherenkov telescope array, as a component of the LHAASO project, will be used to study the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays by measuring the total Cherenkov light generated by air showers and the shower maximum depth. Two prototype telescopes have been in operation since 2008. The pointing accuracy of each telescope is crucial for the direction reconstruction of the primary particles. On the other hand, the primary energy reconstruction relies on the shape of the Cherenkov image on the camera and the unrecorded photons due to the imperfect connections between the photomultiplier tubes. UV bright stars are used as point-like objects to calibrate the pointing and to study the optical properties of the camera, the spot size and the fractions of unrecorded photons in the insensitive areas of the camera.
Scattering neutrons are one of the key factors that may affect the images of fast neutron radiography. In this paper, a mathematical model for scattered neutrons is developed on a cylinder sample, and an empirical formula for scattered neutrons is obtained. According to the results given by Monte Carlo methods, the parameters in the empirical formula are obtained with curve fitting, which confirms the logicality of the empirical formula. The curve-fitted parameters of common materials such as 6LiD are given.
A precision measurment of inclusive electron scattering cross sections is carried out at Jefferson Lab in the quasi-elastic region for 4He, 12C, 56Fe and 208Pb targets. The longitudinal (RL) and transverse (RT) response functions of the nucleon need to be extracted precisely in the momentum transfer range 0.55 GeV/c≤|q|≤1.0 GeV/c. To achieve the above goal, a NaI (Tl) calorimeter is used to distinguish good electrons from background, including pions and low energy electrons rescattered from the walls of the spectrometer magnets. Due to a large set of kinematics and changes in HV settings, a number of calibrations are performed for the NaI (Tl) detector. Corrections for a few blocks of NaI (Tl) with bad or no signal are applied. The resolution of the NaI (Tl) detector after calibration reached (δE)/√E ≈ 3% at E=1 GeV. The performance of the NaI (Tl) detector is compared with a simulation. The good calibration and background analysis for the NaI(Tl) detector are very important for the reduction of the systematic error of cross sections and the separation of RL and RT.
A DC active power filter is an indispensable part in a high power and high stability power supply system, especially in the power supply system of the Steady High Magnetic Field Facility, which requires that the current ripple should be limited to 50 parts per million. In view of the disadvantages of the series DC active power filter and shunt Pulse Width Modulation DC active filter, this paper puts forward a novel DC active filter by combining the advantages of the transistor regulator and the shunt type. The structure and principle of the new shunt linear active filter are introduced. Meanwhile, the design of several key components that construct the new shunt linear active filter is also analyzed. The simulation model and an experimental prototype of the shunt linear active filter are developed, and the results verify that the parameter design is reasonable and the shunt active filter has a good filter effect.
A new SSC-linac system (injector into separated sector cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of SSC-Linac, the LEBT (low energy beam transport) consists of seven solenoids, four quadrupoles, a bending magnet and an extra multi-harmonic buncher. The total length of this segment is about 7 meters. The beam dynamics in this LEBT has been studied using three-dimensional PIC (particle-in-cell) code BEAMPATH. The simulation results show that the continuous beam from the ion source is first well analyzed by a charge-to-mass selection system, and the beam of the selected charge-to-mass ratio is then efficiently pre-bunched by a multi-harmonic buncher and optimally matched into the RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole) for further acceleration. The principles and effects of the solenoid collimation channel are discussed, and it could limit the beam emittance by changing the aperture size.
The length of electron beam from a photocathode RF gun is determined by a spectrometer, according to the relative energy spread induced by the bunch length during the acceleration in a linac. For a photocathode RF gun, different laser injected phase and beam charge are studied. The compression is changed for the different laser phases, as from 10° to 30°, and the bunch length is lengthened due to the strong longitudinal space charge force, caused by the increased charge.
To develop polarizer functioning in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray region, the polarization performance of synthetic mica has been investigated theoretically with a simulation code using Fresnel equations and optical constants from the Henke database. The reflectance of synthetic mica crystal for s and p polarization was measured to investigate its polarization performance in a home-made synchrotron radiation soft X-ray polarimeter at beamline 3W1B, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The reflectivity of the synthetic mica crystal at an angle of grazing incidence of 48° was obtained from the experimental data, which is about 4.8 × 10-3 at 25 nm and 6.0 × 10-4 at 12 nm, and the linear polarizance of the X-ray reflected by the synthetic mica crystal that we measured using an analyzer-rotating method increases from 80% to 96.6% in this EUV region, while higher than 98.2% in the simulation. The result indicates that this synthetic mica crystal works as a practical polarizer in this EUV region of 12--25 nm, and also in an extensive wavelength region higher than 25 nm.
Using a diamond anvil cell device and synchrotron radiation, the in-situ high-pressure structure of SrMnO3 has been investigated. At pressure up to 28.6 GPa, no pressure-induced phase transition is observed. The lattice parameters as a function of pressure is reported, and the relationship of the axial compression coefficients is βa>βc. The isothermal bulk modulus K298=266(4) GPa is also obtained by fitting the pressure-volume data using the Murnaghan equation of state.
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